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Materials in Eighteenth-century Science

Materials in Eighteenth-century Science PDF Author: Ursula Klein
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262113066
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 357

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Book Description
In this history of materials, the authors link chemical science with chemical technology, challenging our current understandings of objects in the history of science and the distinction between scientific and technological objects. They further show that chemits' experimental production and understanding of materials changed over time, first in the decades around 1700 and then around 1830, when mundane materials became clearly distinguished from true chemical substances.

Materials in Eighteenth-century Science

Materials in Eighteenth-century Science PDF Author: Ursula Klein
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262113066
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 357

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Book Description
In this history of materials, the authors link chemical science with chemical technology, challenging our current understandings of objects in the history of science and the distinction between scientific and technological objects. They further show that chemits' experimental production and understanding of materials changed over time, first in the decades around 1700 and then around 1830, when mundane materials became clearly distinguished from true chemical substances.

A History of Science Technology and Philosophy in the 18th Century

A History of Science Technology and Philosophy in the 18th Century PDF Author: Abraham Wolf
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780367181345
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 814

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Book Description
Published in 1938: The new volume presents a full and profusely illustrated account of progress made during the eighteenth century in Mathematics, Mechanics, Astronomy, Physics, Meteorology, Geography, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Psychology, Demography, Economics, Philosophy, and Technology.

Bodily Fluids, Chemistry and Medicine in the Eighteenth-Century Boerhaave School

Bodily Fluids, Chemistry and Medicine in the Eighteenth-Century Boerhaave School PDF Author: Ruben E. Verwaal
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030515419
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 295

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Book Description
This book explores the importance of bodily fluids to the development of medical knowledge in the eighteenth century. While the historiography has focused on the role of anatomy, this study shows that the chemical analyses of bodily fluids in the Dutch Republic radically altered perceptions of the body, propelling forwards a new system of medicine. It examines the new research methods and scientific instruments available at the turn of the eighteenth century that allowed for these developments, taken forward by Herman Boerhaave and his students. Each chapter focuses on a different bodily fluid – saliva, blood, urine, milk, sweat, semen – to investigate how doctors gained new insights into physiological processes through chemical experimentation on these bodily fluids. The book reveals how physicians moved from a humoral theory of medicine to new chemical and mechanical models for understanding the body in the early modern period. In doing so, it uncovers the lives and works of an important group of scientists which grew to become a European-wide community of physicians and chemists.

The Material Cultures of Enlightenment Arts and Sciences

The Material Cultures of Enlightenment Arts and Sciences PDF Author: Adriana Craciun
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137443790
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 322

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Book Description
In this book the eighteenth century Enlightenment receives an important reassessment, using an astonishing range of materials and objects drawn from Europe and beyond, including artefacts from India and China, West Africa and Polynesia. A series of authoritative essays written by experts in the field explores the full range of material culture in the long eighteenth century, raising crucial questions about notions of property and invention, homely and commercial lives. The book also includes a series of well-illustrated exhibits, a startling and provocative assemblage of objects from the Enlightenment world, each accompanied by expert commentaries. The collection of essays and exhibits is the result of collaborative debate by scholars from Europe and north America, who have together worked on the cross-disciplinary importance of material history in making sense of how past society was fundamentally transformed through the world of goods.

Kielmeyer and the Organic World

Kielmeyer and the Organic World PDF Author: Lydia Azadpour
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1350143480
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 248

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Book Description
Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer (1765-1844) was the 'father of philosophy of nature' owing to his profound influence on German Idealist and Romantic Naturphilosophie. With the recent growth of interest in Idealist and Romantic philosophy of nature in the UK and abroad, the importance of Kielmeyer's work is being increasingly recognised and special attention is being paid to his influence on biology's development as a distinct discipline at the end of the eighteenth century. In this exciting new book, Lydia Azadpour and Daniel Whistler present the first ever English translations of key texts by Kielmeyer, along with contextual and interpretative essays by leading international scholars, who are experts on the philosophy of nature and the formation of the life sciences in the late eighteenth century. The topics they cover include: the laws of nature, the concept of force, the meaning of 'organism', the logic of recapitulation, Kielmeyer and ecology, sexual differentiation in animal life and Kielmeyer's relationship to Kant, Schelling and Hegel. In doing so, they provide a comprehensive English reference to Kielmeyer's historical and contemporary significance.

New Narratives in Eighteenth-Century Chemistry

New Narratives in Eighteenth-Century Chemistry PDF Author: Lawrence M. Principe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402062788
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 202

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Book Description
The eighteenth century has long been considered critical for the development of modern chemistry, yet many features of the period remain largely unknown or unexplored. This volume details new approaches and topics to build a more complex view of chemical work during the period. Themes include late-phase alchemy, professionalization, chemical education, and the links and relations between chemistry and pharmacy, medicine, agriculture, and geology.

Smell in Eighteenth-century England

Smell in Eighteenth-century England PDF Author: William Tullett
Publisher: Past and Present Book
ISBN: 0198844131
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 261

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Book Description
In England from the 1670s to the 1820s a transformation took place in how smell and the senses were viewed. The role of smell in developing medical and scientific knowledge came under intense scrutiny, and the equation of smell with disease was actively questioned. Yet a new interest in smell's emotive and idiosyncratic dimensions offered odour a new power in the sociable spaces of eighteenth-century England. Using a wide range of sources from diaries, letters, and sanitary records to satirical prints, consumer objects, and magazines, William Tullett traces how individuals and communities perceived the smells around them, from paint and perfume to onions and farts. In doing so, the study challenges a popular, influential, and often cited narrative. Smell in Eighteenth-Century England is not a tale of the medicalization and deodorization of English olfactory culture. Instead, Tullett demonstrates that it was a new recognition of smell's asocial-sociability, and its capacity to create atmospheres of uncomfortable intimacy, that transformed the relationship between the senses and society.

Feeding France

Feeding France PDF Author: E. C. Spary
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139952366
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Feeding France is the first comprehensive study of the French food industry in the decades surrounding the French Revolution of 1789. Though the history of gastronomy and the restaurant have been explored by scholars, few are aware that France was also one of the first nations to produce industrial foods. In this time of political and social upheaval, chemists managed to succeed both as public food experts and as industrial food manufacturers. This book explores the intersection between knowledge, practice and commerce which made this new food expertise possible, and the institutional and experimental culture which housed it. Ranging from the exigencies of Old Regime bread-making to the industrial showcasing of gelatine manufacture, Emma Spary rewrites the history of the French relationship with food to show that industrialisation and patrimonialism were intimately intertwined.

Civilization and the Culture of Science

Civilization and the Culture of Science PDF Author: Stephen Gaukroger
Publisher: Science and the Shaping of Mod
ISBN: 0198849079
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 534

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Book Description
How did science come to have such a central place in Western culture? How did our ways of thinking, and our moral, political, and social values, come to be modelled around scientific values? Stephen Gaukroger traces the story of how these values developed, and how they influenced society and culture from the 19th to the mid-20th century.

Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists

Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists PDF Author: R. C. Olby
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483226867
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 218

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Book Description
Late Eighteenth Century European Scientists is an account of the remarkable progress made by European scientists at the close of the eighteenth century in the fields of chemistry, electricity, astronomy, and botany. Seven scientists are profiled: Jean Lamarck, Joseph Koelreuter, Antoine Lavoisier, Henry Cavendish, Alessandro Volta, James Watt, and William Herschel. In choosing these scientists, the book emphasizes the following considerations: the need to be representative, to show the contrast between those whose work is primarily experimental and those whose work is speculative, and to include a subject which shows the reaction of science on technology and of technology on society. Comprised of seven chapters, this book begins with Lamarck, whose views, particularly on physics and chemistry, furnish a picture of traditional science during the mid-eighteenth century. The first chapter looks at his life, writings, and work in fields ranging from meteorology and geology to botany, zoology, and evolution. The next chapter focuses on Koelreuter and his experiments on pollen, ovule, pollination, fertilization, and hybridization. The discussion then turns to Cavendish, Herschel, and Volta, who have been included in this monograph primarily because they employed observation and experiment so successfully and as a result made important discoveries. Lavoisier has been chosen on account of his genius for looking at well-known facts and fresh discoveries from a new point of view. Watt has been selected in order to show the technological and sociological difficulties that are involved in applying a new source of power to industry and commerce. This book will be of interest to both students and scientists.