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Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement PDF Author: S.M. Jain
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792348627
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 644

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Book Description
Genetic variability is an important parameter for plant breeders in any con ventional crop improvement programme. Very often the desired variation is un available in the right combination, or simply does not exist at all. However, plant breeders have successfully recombined the desired genes from cultivated crop gerrnplasm and related wild species by sexual hybridization, and have been able to develop new cultivars with desirable agronomie traits, such as high yield, disease, pest, and drought resistance. So far, conventional breeding methods have managed to feed the world's ever-growing population. Continued population growth, no further scope of expanding arable land, soil degradation, environ mental pollution and global warrning are causes of concern to plant biologists and planners. Plant breeders are under continuous pressure to improve and develop new cultivars for sustainable food production. However, it takes several years to develop a new cultivar. Therefore, they have to look for new technologies, which could be combined with conventional methods to create more genetic variability, and reduce the time in developing new cultivars, with early-maturity, and improved yield. The first report on induced mutation of a gene by HJ. Muller in 1927 was a major mi1estone in enhancing variation, and also indicated the potential applica tions of mutagenesis in plant improvement. Radiation sources, such as X-rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens (e. g. , ethyl methane sulphonate) have been widely used to induce mutations.

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement PDF Author: S.M. Jain
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792348627
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 644

View

Book Description
Genetic variability is an important parameter for plant breeders in any con ventional crop improvement programme. Very often the desired variation is un available in the right combination, or simply does not exist at all. However, plant breeders have successfully recombined the desired genes from cultivated crop gerrnplasm and related wild species by sexual hybridization, and have been able to develop new cultivars with desirable agronomie traits, such as high yield, disease, pest, and drought resistance. So far, conventional breeding methods have managed to feed the world's ever-growing population. Continued population growth, no further scope of expanding arable land, soil degradation, environ mental pollution and global warrning are causes of concern to plant biologists and planners. Plant breeders are under continuous pressure to improve and develop new cultivars for sustainable food production. However, it takes several years to develop a new cultivar. Therefore, they have to look for new technologies, which could be combined with conventional methods to create more genetic variability, and reduce the time in developing new cultivars, with early-maturity, and improved yield. The first report on induced mutation of a gene by HJ. Muller in 1927 was a major mi1estone in enhancing variation, and also indicated the potential applica tions of mutagenesis in plant improvement. Radiation sources, such as X-rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens (e. g. , ethyl methane sulphonate) have been widely used to induce mutations.

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement

Somaclonal Variation and Induced Mutations in Crop Improvement PDF Author: S.M. Jain
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401591253
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 620

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Book Description
Genetic variability is an important parameter for plant breeders in any con ventional crop improvement programme. Very often the desired variation is un available in the right combination, or simply does not exist at all. However, plant breeders have successfully recombined the desired genes from cultivated crop gerrnplasm and related wild species by sexual hybridization, and have been able to develop new cultivars with desirable agronomie traits, such as high yield, disease, pest, and drought resistance. So far, conventional breeding methods have managed to feed the world's ever-growing population. Continued population growth, no further scope of expanding arable land, soil degradation, environ mental pollution and global warrning are causes of concern to plant biologists and planners. Plant breeders are under continuous pressure to improve and develop new cultivars for sustainable food production. However, it takes several years to develop a new cultivar. Therefore, they have to look for new technologies, which could be combined with conventional methods to create more genetic variability, and reduce the time in developing new cultivars, with early-maturity, and improved yield. The first report on induced mutation of a gene by HJ. Muller in 1927 was a major mi1estone in enhancing variation, and also indicated the potential applica tions of mutagenesis in plant improvement. Radiation sources, such as X-rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens (e. g. , ethyl methane sulphonate) have been widely used to induce mutations.

Mutation Breeding

Mutation Breeding PDF Author: A. M. van Harten
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521470742
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 372

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Book Description
An essential and comprehensive summary for all plant breeders.

Plant Tissue Culture and Moelcular Markers

Plant Tissue Culture and Moelcular Markers PDF Author: Ashwani Kumar
Publisher: I. K. International Pvt Ltd
ISBN: 8189866109
Category : Agricultural productivity
Languages : en
Pages : 687

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Book Description
Plant tissue culture techniques help in understanding basic life processes, which is essential to improving crop productivity. Furthermore, recently molecular biology has assumed great importance with respect to plant biotechnology. This book combines all three aspects into one with a focus on practical applications of various techniques. It discusses micropropagation studies on several crop plants, the molecular basis of understanding various life processes including the molecular basis of somatic embryogenesis, and other physiological and biochemical processes having significant biotechnological applications. It also covers in vitro studies of certain important plants like Aloe vera, Simmondsia chinensis, Anacyclus pyrethrum and Crataeva nurvala, Arachis hypogaea L., Phoenix dactylifera, Dendrocalamus asper, Asparagus adescendens Roxb., natural products of plant origin with their therapeutic potential and biotechnological production, as well as genome analysis of crop plants with future applications in biotechnology.

Mutation Breeding

Mutation Breeding PDF Author: S.S Purohit
Publisher:
ISBN: 9788177543780
Category : Breeding
Languages : en
Pages : 198

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Book Description
Mutation means a sudden phenotypic change in a character of an individual, not due to crossing or segregation or an alteration in the macro-molecule of DNA (where it remains open, whether the alteration leads to a change in gene function or not). It also means the augmentation of genetic material through nucleotide or gene copies, through additional individual chromosomes, as well as through the multiplication of whole genomes towards polyploidy. # Plant breeding requires genetic variation of useful traits for crop improvement.Often, however, desired variation is lacking. Mutagenic agents, such as radiation and certain chemicals, then can be used to induce mutations and generate genetic variations from which desired mutants may be selected. Therefore, mutation breeding means: (1) The phenotypic alteration, and (2) The various underlying molecular and numerical changes. But in any case, a mutation has to be phenotypically expressed to be selectable, all other mutations are only of scientific interest. # The present book includes the chapters like: Mutation: General concepts, Mutation: The Molecular Basis, Mutation: Variation in chromosome number and structure, plant breeding using mutations, induced mutation and plant breeding, techniques of mutation breeding plant biotechnology, mutation and breeding, somaclonal and gametoclonal variant selection, techniques of induced mutation, and new cultivars developed by mutation breeding. In the end selected references have been appended.

In Vitro Application in Crop Improvement

In Vitro Application in Crop Improvement PDF Author: A Mujib
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482280116
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 338

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Book Description
Covers research achievements in the fields of developmental biology, physiology, and pathology. Chapters discuss sericulture techniques, cocoons, dormancy and hormones, clones, the apple biting silkworm, the sable mutation, separation of male and female eggs, and genetic engineering. An appendix explains the technical terminology. Numerous illustra

Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement II

Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement II PDF Author: Y. P. S. Bajaj
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642610811
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 359

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Book Description
In continuation of Somaclonal Variation and Crop Improvement I (1990), this volume is comprised of twenty-four chapters dealing with somaclonal variants showing resistance to salt/drought, herbicides, viruses, Alternaria, Fusarium, Glomerella, Verticillium, Phytophthora, fall armyworm, etc. in a number of plants of economic importance. It is divided into two sections: Section I. Somaclonal Variation in Agricultural Crops: wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, potato, tomato, Lotus, Stylosanthes, banana, strawberry, citrus, colt cherry. Section II. Somaclonal Variation in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Atropa, Carthamus, Hypericum, Lavatera, Nicotiana, Primula, Rauwolfia, Scilla, and Zinnia. This book will be of great assistance to research workers, teachers, and advanced students of plant pathology, tissue culture, pharmacy, horticulture, and especially plant breeding.

Agricultural Biotechnology: Latest Research and Trends

Agricultural Biotechnology: Latest Research and Trends PDF Author: Dinesh Kumar Srivastava
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811623392
Category : Agricultural biotechnology
Languages : en
Pages : 727

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Book Description
This book caters to the need of researchers working in the ever-evolving field of agricultural biotechnology. It discusses and provides in-depth information about latest advancements happening in this field. The book discusses evolution of plant tissue culture techniques, development of doubled haploids technology, role of recombinant-DNA technology in crop improvement. It also provides an insight into the global status of genetically modified crops, use of RNAi technology and mi-RNAs in plant improvement. Chapters are also dedicated for different branches of "omics" science including genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics along with the use of molecular markers in tagging and mapping of various genes/QTLs of agronomic importance. This book also covers the role of enzymes and microbes in agriculture in productivity enhancement. It is of interest to teachers, researchers of biotechnology and agriculture scientists. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and postgraduate students of biotechnology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, ecology, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and international biotechnologists and agricultural scientists will also find this to be a useful read.

Biotechnologies of Crop Improvement, Volume 1

Biotechnologies of Crop Improvement, Volume 1 PDF Author: Satbir Singh Gosal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319782835
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 497

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Book Description
During the past 15 years, cellular and molecular approaches have emerged as valuable adjuncts to supplement and complement conventional breeding methods for a wide variety of crop plants. Biotechnology increasingly plays a role in the creation, conservation, characterization and utilization of genetic variability for germplasm enhancement. For instance, anther/microspore culture, somaclonal variation, embryo culture and somatic hybridization are being exploited for obtaining incremental improvement in the existing cultivars. In addition, genes that confer insect- and disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, herbicide tolerance and quality traits have been isolated and re-introduced into otherwise sensitive or susceptible species by a variety of transgenic techniques. Together these transformative methodologies grant access to a greater repertoire of genetic diversity as the gene(s) may come from viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, animals, human beings, unrelated plants or even be artificially derived. Remarkable achievements have been made in the production, characterization, field evaluation and commercialization of transgenic crop varieties worldwide. Likewise, significant advances have been made towards increasing crop yields, improving nutritional quality, enabling crops to be raised under adverse conditions and developing resistance to pests and diseases for sustaining global food and nutritional security. The overarching purpose of this 3-volume work is to summarize the history of crop improvement from a technological perspective but to do so with a forward outlook on further advancement and adaptability to a changing world. Our carefully chosen “case studies of important plant crops” intend to serve a diverse spectrum of audience looking for the right tools to tackle complicated local and global issues.

Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools

Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools PDF Author: Jameel M. Al-Khayri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319225219
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 656

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Book Description
The basic concept of this book is to examine the use of innovative methods augmenting traditional plant breeding towards the development of new crop varieties under different environmental conditions to achieve sustainable food production. This book consists of two volumes: Volume 1 subtitled Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools and Volume 2 subtitled Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. This is Volume 1 which consists of 21 chapters covering domestication and germplasm utilization, conventional breeding techniques and the role of biotechnology. In addition to various biotechnological applications in plant breeding, it includes functional genomics, mutations and methods of detection, and molecular markers. In vitro techniques and their applications in plant breeding are discussed with an emphasis on embryo rescue, somatic cell hybridization and somaclonal variation. Other chapters cover haploid breeding, transgenics, cryogenics and bioinformatics.