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Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality PDF Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc
ISBN: 1794730737
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology of the research programmes of Lakatos that I then use during the paper. I believe that this approach offers a new perspective on how evolved over time the concept of gravity and the methods of testing each theory of gravity, through observations and experiments. I argue, based on the methodology of the research programmes and the studies of scientists and philosophers, that the current theories of quantum gravity are degenerative.

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality PDF Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc
ISBN: 1794730737
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology of the research programmes of Lakatos that I then use during the paper. I believe that this approach offers a new perspective on how evolved over time the concept of gravity and the methods of testing each theory of gravity, through observations and experiments. I argue, based on the methodology of the research programmes and the studies of scientists and philosophers, that the current theories of quantum gravity are degenerative.

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality PDF Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publisher: MultiMedia Publishing
ISBN: 6060333214
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

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Book Description
The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology of the research programmes of Lakatos that I then use during the paper. I believe that this approach offers a new perspective on how evolved over time the concept of gravity and the methods of testing each theory of gravity, through observations and experiments. I argue, based on the methodology of the research programmes and the studies of scientists and philosophers, that the current theories of quantum gravity are degenerative, due to the lack of experimental evidence over a long period of time and of self-immunization against the possibility of falsification. Moreover, a methodological current is being developed that assigns a secondary, unimportant role to verification through observations and/or experiments. For this reason, it will not be possible to have a complete theory of quantum gravity in its current form, which to include to the limit the general relativity, since physical theories have always been adjusted, during their evolution, based on observational or experimental tests, and verified by the predictions made. Also, contrary to a widespread opinion and current active programs regarding the unification of all the fundamental forces of physics in a single final theory, based on string theory, I argue that this unification is generally unlikely, and it is not possible anyway for a unification to be developed based on current theories of quantum gravity, including string theory. In addition, I support the views of some scientists and philosophers that currently too much resources are being consumed on the idea of developing quantum gravity theories, and in particular string theory, to include general relativity and to unify gravity with other forces, as long as science does not impose such research programs. CONTENTS: Introduction Gravity Gravitational tests Methodology of Lakatos - Scientific rationality The natural extension of the Lakatos methodology Bifurcated programs Unifying programs 1. Newtonian gravity 1.1 Heuristics of Newtonian gravity 1.2 Proliferation of post-Newtonian theories 1.3 Tests of post-Newtonian theories 1.3.1 Newton's proposed tests 1.3.2 Tests of post-Newtonian theories 1.4 Newtonian gravity anomalies 1.5 Saturation point in Newtonian gravity 2. General relativity 2.1 Heuristics of the general relativity 2.2 Proliferation of post-Einsteinian gravitational theories 2.3 Post-Newtonian parameterized formalism (PPN) 2.4 Tests of general relativity and post-Einsteinian theories 2.4.1 Tests proposed by Einstein 2.4.2 Tests of post-Einsteinian theories 2.4.3 Classic tests 2.4.3.1 Precision of Mercury's perihelion 2.4.3.2 Light deflection 2.4.3.3 Gravitational redshift 2.4.4 Modern tests 2.4.4.1 Shapiro Delay 2.4.4.2 Gravitational dilation of time 2.4.4.3 Frame dragging and geodetic effect 2.4.4.4 Testing of the principle of equivalence 2.4.4.5 Solar system tests 2.4.5 Strong field gravitational tests 2.4.5.1 Gravitational lenses 2.4.5.2 Gravitational waves 2.4.5.3 Synchronization binary pulsars 2.4.5.4 Extreme environments 2.4.6 Cosmological tests 2.4.6.1 The expanding universe 2.4.6.2 Cosmological observations 2.4.6.3 Monitoring of weak gravitational lenses 2.5 Anomalies of general relativity 2.6 The saturation point of general relativity 3. Quantum gravity 3.1 Heuristics of quantum gravity 3.2 The tests of quantum gravity 3.3 Canonical quantum gravity 3.3.1 Tests proposed for the CQG 3.3.2. Loop quantum gravity 3.4 String theory 3.4.1 Heuristics of string theory 3.4.2. Anomalies of string theory 3.5 Other theories of quantum gravity 3.6 Unification (The Final Theory) 4. Cosmology Conclusions Notes Bibliography DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35350.70724

Philosophical Essays

Philosophical Essays PDF Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publisher: MultiMedia Publishing
ISBN: 6060334741
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
A collection of personal essays in philosophy of science (physics, especially gravity), philosophy of information and communication technology, current social issues (emotional intelligence, COVID-19 pandemic, eugenics, intelligence), philosophy of art, and logic and philosophy of language. The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper Imre Lakatos - Heuristics and methodological tolerance Isaac Newton on the action at a distance in gravity: With or without God? Causal Loops in Time Travel The singularities as ontological limits of the general relativity Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies Big Data Ethics in Research Emotions and Emotional Intelligence in Organizations COVID-19 Pandemic - Philosophical Approaches Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky - Psychological and philosophical aspects Causal theories of reference for proper names CONTENTS: The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 The demarcation problem - - - 2 Pseudoscience - - - 3 Falsifiability - - - 4 Falsification and refutation - - - 5 Extension of falsifiability - - - 6 Criticism of falsifiability - - - 7 Support of falsifiability - - - 8 The current trend - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Imre Lakatos - Heuristics and methodological tolerance - - - Rational reconstruction of science through research programmes - - - Dogmatic Falsificationism - - - Justificationism - - - Bibliography Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Robert Hooke's contribution to the law of universal gravitation - - - Isaac Newton's contribution to the law of universal gravitation - - - Robert Hooke's claim of his priority on the law of universal gravitation - - - Newton's defense - - - The controversy in the opinion of other contemporary scientists - - - What the supporters of Isaac Newton say - - - What the supporters of Robert Hooke say - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Isaac Newton on the action at a distance in gravity: With or without God? - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Principia - - - Correspondence with Richard Bentley - - - Queries in Opticks - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Causal Loops in Time Travel - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - History of the concept of time travel - - - Grandfather paradox - - - The philosophy of time travel - - - Causal loops - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes The singularities as ontological limits of the general relativity - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - - - - Classical Theory and Special Relativity - - - - - - General Relativity (GR) - - - 1 Ontology of General Relativity - - - 2 Singularities - - - - - - Black Holes - - - - - - - - - Event Horizon - - - - - - Big Bang - - - - - - Are there Singularities? - - - 3 Ontology of Singularities - - - - - - Ontology of black holes - - - - - - The hole argument - - - - - - There are no singularities - - - Conclusions - - - Notes - - - Bibliography Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality - - - Introduction - - - - - - Gravity - - - - - - Gravitational tests - - - - - - Methodology of Lakatos - Scientific rationality - - - - - - The natural extension of the Lakatos methodology - - - - - - - - - Bifurcated programs - - - - - - - - - Unifying programs - - - 1. Newtonian gravity - - - - - - 1.1 Heuristics of Newtonian gravity - - - - - - 1.2 Proliferation of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - 1.3 Tests of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - - - - 1.3.1 Newton's proposed tests - - - - - - - - - 1.3.2 Tests of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - 1.4 Newtonian gravity anomalies - - - - - - 1.5 Saturation point in Newtonian gravity - - - 2. General relativity - - - - - - 2.1 Heuristics of the general relativity - - - - - - 2.2 Proliferation of post-Einsteinian gravitational theories - - - - - - 2.3 Post-Newtonian parameterized formalism (PPN) - - - - - - 2.4 Tests of general relativity and post-Einsteinian theories - - - - - - - - - 2.4.1 Tests proposed by Einstein - - - - - - - - - 2.4.2 Tests of post-Einsteinian theories - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3 Classic tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.1 Precision of Mercury's perihelion - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.2 Light deflection - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.3 Gravitational redshift - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4 Modern tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.1 Shapiro Delay - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.2 Gravitational dilation of time - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.3 Frame dragging and geodetic effect - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.4 Testing of the principle of equivalence - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.5 Solar system tests - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5 Strong field gravitational tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.1 Gravitational lenses - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.2 Gravitational waves - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.3 Synchronization binary pulsars - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.4 Extreme environments - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6 Cosmological tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.1 The expanding universe - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.2 Cosmological observations - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.3 Monitoring of weak gravitational lenses - - - - - - 2.5 Anomalies of general relativity - - - - - - 2.6 The saturation point of general relativity - - - 3. Quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.1 Heuristics of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.2 The tests of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.3 Canonical quantum gravity - - - - - - - - - 3.3.1 Tests proposed for the CQG - - - - - - - - - 3.3.2. Loop quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.4 String theory - - - - - - - - - 3.4.1 Heuristics of string theory - - - - - - - - - 3.4.2. Anomalies of string theory - - - - - - 3.5 Other theories of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.6 Unification (The Final Theory) - - - 4. Cosmology - - - Conclusions - - - Notes - - - Bibliography Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Blockchain Technology - - - - - - Design - - - - - - Models - - - Bitcoin - - - Philosophy - - - Ontologies - - - - - - Narrative ontologies - - - - - - Enterprise ontologies - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Big Data Ethics in Research - - - Abstract - - - 1. Introduction - - - - - - 1.1 Definitions - - - - - - 1.2 Big Data dimensions - - - 2. Technology - - - - - - 2.1 Applications - - - - - - - - - 2.1.1 In research - - - 3. Philosophical aspects - - - 4. Legal aspects - - - - - - 4.1 GDPR - - - - - - - - - Stages of processing of personal data - - - - - - - - - Principles of data processing - - - - - - - - - Privacy policy and transparency - - - - - - - - - Purposes of data processing - - - - - - - - - Design and implicit confidentiality - - - - - - - - - The (legal) paradox of Big Data - - - 5. Ethical issues - - - - - - Ethics in research - - - - - - Awareness - - - - - - Consent - - - - - - Control - - - - - - Transparency - - - - - - Trust - - - - - - Ownership - - - - - - Surveillance and security - - - - - - Digital identity - - - - - - Tailored reality - - - - - - De-identification - - - - - - Digital inequality - - - - - - Privacy - - - 6. Big Data research - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Emotions and Emotional Intelligence in Organizations - - - Abstract - - - 1. Emotions - - - - - - 1.1 Models of emotion - - - - - - 1.2 Processing emotions - - - - - - 1.3 Happiness - - - - - - 1.4 The philosophy of emotions - - - - - - 1.5 The ethics of emotions - - - 2. Emotional intelligence - - - - - - 2.1 Models of emotional intelligence - - - - - - - - - 2.1.1 Model of abilities of Mayer and Salovey - - - - - - - - - 2.1.2 Goleman's mixed model - - - - - - - - - 2.1.3 The mixed model of Bar-On - - - - - - - - - 2.1.4 Petrides' model of traits - - - - - - 2.2 Emotional intelligence in research and education - - - - - - 2.3 The philosophy of emotional intelligence - - - - - - - - - 2.3.1 Emotional intelligence in Eastern philosophy - - - 3. Emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.1 Emotional labor - - - - - - 3.2 The philosophy of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.3 Critique of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.4 Ethics of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography COVID-19 Pandemic - Philosophical Approaches - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 Viruses - - - - - - 1.1 Ontology - - - 2 Pandemics - - - - - - 2.1 Social dimensions - - - - - - 2.2 Ethics - - - 3 COVID-19 - - - - - - 3.1 Biopolitics - - - - - - 3.2 Neocommunism - - - - - - 3.3 Desocialising - - - 4 Forecasting - - - Bibliography Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - New Eugenics - - - The Future of Eugenics - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies - - - Abstract - - - 1 Introduction - - - - - - 1.1. History - - - 2. Intelligence activity - - - - - - 2.1. Organizations - - - - - - 2.2. Intelligence cycle - - - - - - 2.3 Intelligence gathering - - - - - - 2.4. Intelligence analysis - - - - - - 2.5. Counterintelligence - - - - - - 2.6. Epistemic communities - - - 3. Ontology - - - 4. Epistemology - - - - - - 4.1. The tacit knowledge (Polanyi) - - - 5. Methodologies - - - 6. Analogies with other disciplines - - - - - - 6.1. Science - - - - - - 6.2. Archeology - - - - - - 6.3. Business - - - - - - 6.4. Medicine - - - 7. Conclusions - - - Bibliography Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky - Psychological and philosophical aspects - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 Cinema technique - - - 2 Psychological Aspects - - - 3 Philosophical aspects - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Causal theories of reference for proper names - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1. The causal theory of reference - - - 2. Saul Kripke - - - 3. Gareth Evans - - - 4. Michael Devitt - - - 5. Blockchain and the causal tree of reference - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliografie About the author - - - Nicolae Sfetcu - - - - - - Contact Publishing House - - - MultiMedia Publishing

Dictionary of the History of Science

Dictionary of the History of Science PDF Author: William F. Bynum
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400853419
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 530

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Book Description
For readers interested in the development of major scientific concepts and the role of science in the western world, here is the first conceptually organized historical dictionary of scientific thought. The purpose of the dictionary is to illuminate this history by providing a concise, single volume reference book of short historical accounts of the important themes, ideas, and discoveries of science. Its conceptual approach differentiates the dictionary from previous reference works such as books of scientific biography and makes it a convenient manual both for the general reader and for scientists interested in the origin of concepts in their own and other scientific fields. Originally published in 1982. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Rational and the Social (RLE Social Theory)

The Rational and the Social (RLE Social Theory) PDF Author: James Robert Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317651308
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 206

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Book Description
To paraphrase Marx, sociologists have only interpreted science; the point is to improve it. The Rational and the Social attempts both. It begins by sketching recent sociological approaches to science, notably the strong programme – Bloor’s ‘science of science’ and Barnes’s ‘finitism’ – and that of the ‘anthropologists in the lab’, Collins and Latour and Woolgar. The author argues that although sociological accounts are valuable in many respects, when morals are drawn about the structure and epistemology of science, they are badly flawed. In rejecting the sociological theory of science, it is not necessary to conclude that science develops without reference to the social. James Robert Brown argues for an alternative account. He proposes a novel way of viewing the history of science as a source of evidence for how to do good science and argues that the most important aspect of methodology is that it is comparative. Rival theories are evaluated by comparison and the contribution of the social to this process is inevitable and should be acknowledged. This is the challenge to science.

The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies

The Philosophy of Historical Case Studies PDF Author: Tilman Sauer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319302299
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 296

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Book Description
This volume collects reflections on the role of philosophy in case studies in the history of science. Case studies have played a prominent role in recent history and philosophy of science. They have been used to illustrate, question, explore, or explicate philosophical points of view. Even if not explicitly so, historical narratives are always guided by philosophical background assumptions. But what happens if different philosophies lead to different narratives of the same historical episodes? Can historical case studies decide between competing philosophical viewpoints? What are the criteria that a case study has to fulfill in order to be philosophically relevant? Bringing together leading practitioners in the fields of history and philosophy of the physical and the life sciences, this volume addresses this methodological problem and proposes ways of rendering explicit philosophical assumptions of historical work.

Newton's Principia Revisited

Newton's Principia Revisited PDF Author: Michael Schmiechen
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3837053075
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 694

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Book Description
PROBLEM. The treatise is devoted to the reconstruction of our 'instinctive beliefs' in classical mechanics and to present them 'as much isolated and as free from irrelevant additions as possible'. The same motivation has driven many authors since the publication of Newton's Principia. IMPORTANCE. Classical mechanics will remain the basic reference and tool for mechanics on terrestrial and planetary scale as well as the proto-theory of relativistic and quantum mechanics. But it can only serve its purpose if it is not considered as obsolete, but if its foundations and implications are understood and made 'absolutely' clear. METHOD. Based on the 'instinctive belief' that the foundations of classical mechanics cannot be found and reconstructed within mechanics itself but only 'outside', classical mechanics is 'understood' by embedding it into an adequate theory of knowledge and adequate proto- and meta-theories in terms of the 'language of dynamics'. Evidence is produced that available philosophical expositions are not adequate for the purpose at hand. Mechanics is treated as part of physics, not of mathematics. Not sophisticated mathematical artifacts, necessary for solving specific problems, but the intellectually satisfactory foundation of mechanics in general is subject and purpose of the exercise. The goal is reached using axiomatic systems as models. SCOPE. Following an account of the unsatisfactory state of affairs the treatise covers the epistemological foundations, abstract proto-mechanics, i. e. the theories of time and space, meta-mechanics, i. e. the theories of state space models and of quantities proper, and, as an instance of the latter, abstract elementary mechanics, the theory of translational motions of 'small' solid bodies in three-dimensional Euclidean space, including classical general relativity. Subsequently the theory of classical kinematics is developed as basis for interpreted proto-mechanics and interpreted elementary mechanics. As an amus

Built upon Love

Built upon Love PDF Author: Alberto Perez-Gomez
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262264226
Category : Architecture
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Book Description
A vision of architecture that transcends concerns of form and function and finds the connections between the architect's wish to design a beautiful world and architecture's imperative to provide a better place for society. The forced polarity between form and function in considerations of architecture—opposing art to social interests, ethics to poetic expression—obscures the deep connections between ethical and poetical values in architectural tradition. Architecture has been, and must continue to be, writes Alberto Pérez-Gómez, built upon love. Modernity has rightly rejected past architectural excesses, but, Pérez-Gómez argues, the materialistic and technological alternatives it proposes do not answer satisfactorily the complex desire that defines humanity. True architecture is concerned with far more than fashionable form, affordable homes, and sustainable development; it responds to a desire for an eloquent place to dwell—one that lovingly provides a sense of order resonant with our dreams. In Built upon Love Pérez-Gómez uncovers the relationship between love and architecture in order to find the points of contact between poetics and ethics—between the architect's wish to design a beautiful world and architecture's imperative to provide a better place for society. Eros, as first imagined by the early lyric poets of classical Greece, is the invisible force at the root of our capacity to create and comprehend the poetic image. Pérez-Gómez examines the nature of architectural form in the light of eros, seduction, and the tradition of the poetic image in Western architecture. He charts the ethical dimension of architecture, tracing the connections between philia—the love of friends that entails mutual responsibility among equals—and architectural program. He explores the position of architecture at the limits of language and discusses the analogical language of philia in modernist architectural theory. Finally, he uncovers connections between ethics and poetics, describing a contemporary practice of architecture under the sign of love, incorporating both eros and philia.

Learning from Our Mistakes

Learning from Our Mistakes PDF Author: William J. Talbott
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0197567673
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
In Learning from Our Mistakes: Epistemology for the Real World, William J. Talbott provides a new framework for understanding the history of Western epistemology and uses it to propose a new way of understanding rational belief that can be applied to pressing social and political issues. Talbott's new model of rational belief is not a model of a theorem prover in mathematics It is a model of a good learner. Being a good learner requires sensitivity to clues, the imaginative ability to generate alternative explanatory narratives that fit the clues, and the ability to select the most coherent explanatory narrative. Sensitivity to clues requires sensitivity not only to evidence that supports one's own beliefs, but also to evidence that casts doubt on them. One of the most important characteristics of a good learner is the ability to correct mistakes. From this model, Talbott articulates nine principles that help to explain the difference between rational and irrational belief. Talbott contrasts his approach with the approach of historically important philosophers, including Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Wittgenstein, and Kuhn, as well as with a range of contemporary approaches, including pragmatism, Bayesianism, and naturalism. On the basis of his model of rational belief, Talbott articulates a new theory of prejudice, which he uses to help diagnose the sources of inequity in the U.S. criminal justice system, as well as to provide insight into the proliferation of tribal and fascist epistemologies based on alt-facts and alt-truth. Learning from Our Mistakes offers a new lens through which to interpret the history of Western epistemology and analyze the complicated social and political phenomena facing us today.

Error and Inference

Error and Inference PDF Author: Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521180252
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 419

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Book Description
Explores the nature of error and inference, drawing on exchanges on experimental reasoning, reliability, and the objectivity of science.