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The National Biometrics Challenge

The National Biometrics Challenge PDF Author: National Science National Science and Technology Council
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781505263664
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 42

Book Description
The NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics prepared and published the original National Biometrics Challenge in August 2006. That report identified key challenges in advancing biometrics development. It was based upon analysis of the unique attributes of biometrics, the market forces and societal issues driving implementation of biometrics and the advances required for next-generation capabilities. A further prioritization was done within the Subcommittee, and the top third of priorities received about 83 percent of Federal funding. During the last five years, evolving mission needs, coupled with advances in technology, have necessitated a new look at research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) priorities. This 2011 update to the Challenge examines the many advances made as government, academia and the private sector responded to the - challenge issued in 2006. It further delineates some of the complex issues that, five years later, have yet to be fully addressed. It acknowledges that the understanding of requirements has increased with experience while the advance of technology raises capabilities and expectations. Government and industry have a common challenge to provide robust identity management tools and to deploy those tools intelligently to meet national and international needs. Collaboration among the biometrics community - government, industry and academia - on these common challenges remains essential.

The National Biometrics Challenge

The National Biometrics Challenge PDF Author: National Science National Science and Technology Council
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781505263664
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 42

Book Description
The NSTC Subcommittee on Biometrics prepared and published the original National Biometrics Challenge in August 2006. That report identified key challenges in advancing biometrics development. It was based upon analysis of the unique attributes of biometrics, the market forces and societal issues driving implementation of biometrics and the advances required for next-generation capabilities. A further prioritization was done within the Subcommittee, and the top third of priorities received about 83 percent of Federal funding. During the last five years, evolving mission needs, coupled with advances in technology, have necessitated a new look at research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) priorities. This 2011 update to the Challenge examines the many advances made as government, academia and the private sector responded to the - challenge issued in 2006. It further delineates some of the complex issues that, five years later, have yet to be fully addressed. It acknowledges that the understanding of requirements has increased with experience while the advance of technology raises capabilities and expectations. Government and industry have a common challenge to provide robust identity management tools and to deploy those tools intelligently to meet national and international needs. Collaboration among the biometrics community - government, industry and academia - on these common challenges remains essential.

Biometric Recognition

Biometric Recognition PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309142075
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 182

Book Description
Biometric recognition-the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic-is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and increase the efficiency of access to services and their utilization. Biometric recognition has been applied to identification of criminals, patient tracking in medical informatics, and the personalization of social services, among other things. In spite of substantial effort, however, there remain unresolved questions about the effectiveness and management of systems for biometric recognition, as well as the appropriateness and societal impact of their use. Moreover, the general public has been exposed to biometrics largely as high-technology gadgets in spy thrillers or as fear-instilling instruments of state or corporate surveillance in speculative fiction. Now, as biometric technologies appear poised for broader use, increased concerns about national security and the tracking of individuals as they cross borders have caused passports, visas, and border-crossing records to be linked to biometric data. A focus on fighting insurgencies and terrorism has led to the military deployment of biometric tools to enable recognition of individuals as friend or foe. Commercially, finger-imaging sensors, whose cost and physical size have been reduced, now appear on many laptop personal computers, handheld devices, mobile phones, and other consumer devices. Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities addresses the issues surrounding broader implementation of this technology, making two main points: first, biometric recognition systems are incredibly complex, and need to be addressed as such. Second, biometric recognition is an inherently probabilistic endeavor. Consequently, even when the technology and the system in which it is embedded are behaving as designed, there is inevitable uncertainty and risk of error. This book elaborates on these themes in detail to provide policy makers, developers, and researchers a comprehensive assessment of biometric recognition that examines current capabilities, future possibilities, and the role of government in technology and system development.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309142393
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 348

Book Description
Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

Selfie Biometrics

Selfie Biometrics PDF Author: Ajita Rattani
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030269728
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 380

Book Description
This book highlights the field of selfie biometrics, providing a clear overview and presenting recent advances and challenges. It also discusses numerous selfie authentication techniques on mobile devices. Biometric authentication using mobile devices is becoming a convenient and important means of verifying identity for secured access and services such as telebanking and electronic transactions. In this context, face and ocular biometrics in the visible spectrum has gained increased attention from the research community. However, device mobility and operation in uncontrolled environments mean that facial and ocular images captured with mobile devices exhibit substantial degradation as a result of adverse lighting conditions, specular reflections and motion and defocus blur. In addition, low spatial resolution and the small sensor of front-facing mobile cameras further degrade the sample quality, reducing the recognition accuracy of face and ocular recognition technology when integrated into smartphones. Presenting the state of the art in mobile biometric research and technology, and offering an overview of the potential problems in real-time integration of biometrics in mobile devices, this book is a valuable resource for final-year undergraduate students, postgraduate students, engineers, researchers and academics in various fields of computer engineering.

Biometric Identification, Law and Ethics

Biometric Identification, Law and Ethics PDF Author: Marcus Smith
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030902560
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 105

Book Description
This book is open access. This book undertakes a multifaceted and integrated examination of biometric identification, including the current state of the technology, how it is being used, the key ethical issues, and the implications for law and regulation. The five chapters examine the main forms of contemporary biometrics–fingerprint recognition, facial recognition and DNA identification– as well the integration of biometric data with other forms of personal data, analyses key ethical concepts in play, including privacy, individual autonomy, collective responsibility, and joint ownership rights, and proposes a raft of principles to guide the regulation of biometrics in liberal democracies. Biometric identification technology is developing rapidly and being implemented more widely, along with other forms of information technology. As products, services and communication moves online, digital identity and security is becoming more important. Biometric identification facilitates this transition. Citizens now use biometrics to access a smartphone or obtain a passport; law enforcement agencies use biometrics in association with CCTV to identify a terrorist in a crowd, or identify a suspect via their fingerprints or DNA; and companies use biometrics to identify their customers and employees. In some cases the use of biometrics is governed by law, in others the technology has developed and been implemented so quickly that, perhaps because it has been viewed as a valuable security enhancement, laws regulating its use have often not been updated to reflect new applications. However, the technology associated with biometrics raises significant ethical problems, including in relation to individual privacy, ownership of biometric data, dual use and, more generally, as is illustrated by the increasing use of biometrics in authoritarian states such as China, the potential for unregulated biometrics to undermine fundamental principles of liberal democracy. Resolving these ethical problems is a vital step towards more effective regulation.

Privacy and Data Protection Issues of Biometric Applications

Privacy and Data Protection Issues of Biometric Applications PDF Author: Els J. Kindt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400775229
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 975

Book Description
This book discusses all critical privacy and data protection aspects of biometric systems from a legal perspective. It contains a systematic and complete analysis of the many issues raised by these systems based on examples worldwide and provides several recommendations for a transnational regulatory framework. An appropriate legal framework is in most countries not yet in place. Biometric systems use facial images, fingerprints, iris and/or voice in an automated way to identify or to verify (identity) claims of persons. The treatise which has an interdisciplinary approach starts with explaining the functioning of biometric systems in general terms for non-specialists. It continues with a description of the legal nature of biometric data and makes a comparison with DNA and biological material and the regulation thereof. After describing the risks, the work further reviews the opinions of data protection authorities in relation to biometric systems and current and future (EU) law. A detailed legal comparative analysis is made of the situation in Belgium, France and the Netherlands. The author concludes with an evaluation of the proportionality principle and the application of data protection law to biometric data processing operations, mainly in the private sector. Pleading for more safeguards in legislation, the author makes several suggestions for a regulatory framework aiming at reducing the risks of biometric systems. They include limitations to the collection and storage of biometric data as well as technical measures, which could influence the proportionality of the processing. The text is supported by several figures and tables providing a summary of particular points of the discussion. The book also uses the 2012 biometric vocabulary adopted by ISO and contains an extensive bibliography and literature sources.

Making the Nation Safer

Making the Nation Safer PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309182727
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 440

Book Description
Vulnerabilities abound in U.S. society. The openness and efficiency of our key infrastructures â€" transportation, information and telecommunications systems, health systems, the electric power grid, emergency response units, food and water supplies, and others â€" make them susceptible to terrorist attacks. Making the Nation Safer discusses technical approaches to mitigating these vulnerabilities. A broad range of topics are covered in this book, including: Nuclear and radiological threats, such as improvised nuclear devices and "dirty bombs;" Bioterrorism, medical research, agricultural systems and public health; Toxic chemicals and explosive materials; Information technology, such as communications systems, data management, cyber attacks, and identification and authentication systems; Energy systems, such as the electrical power grid and oil and natural gas systems; Transportation systems; Cities and fixed infrastructures, such as buildings, emergency operations centers, and tunnels; The response of people to terrorism, such as how quality of life and morale of the population can be a target of terrorists and how people respond to terrorist attacks; and Linked infrastructures, i.e. the vulnerabilities that result from the interdependencies of key systems. In each of these areas, there are recommendations on how to immediately apply existing knowledge and technology to make the nation safer and on starting research and development programs that could produce innovations that will strengthen key systems and protect us against future threats. The book also discusses issues affecting the government's ability to carry out the necessary science and engineering programs and the important role of industry, universities, and states, counties, and cities in homeland security efforts. A long term commitment to homeland security is necessary to make the nation safer, and this book lays out a roadmap of how science and engineering can assist in countering terrorism.

Adopting Biometric Technology

Adopting Biometric Technology PDF Author: Ravindra Das
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498717454
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 242

Book Description
Many types of security technologies are currently in use, with biometrics being one of the latest and most cutting-edge forms that has been produced for mass application. Biometrics, while intriguing, is often broached with hesitation and poor understanding. Adopting Biometric Technology: Challenges and Solutions advocates increased implementation of biometric technology areas of the world where it has been least accepted, particularly in the United States. This book looks at several specific applications of biometric technology, challenging issues that have obstructed the use of biometrics in security and offering realistic solutions for increasing its worldwide utilization. It is divided into three sections, with the first discussing societal barriers against the adoption of biometric technology in security. The second section presents case studies of specific applications, such as e-passports and e-voting, that have already been implemented and could be expanded into regions where usage is low. The third section lays out a case for the general practicality and value that biometrics offers to relevant business sectors, including the benefits of implementing the currently controversial technology in place of the conventional forms of verification. While biometric technology has been poorly accepted and adopted in the United States as well as other developed nations, it is already a popular tool in developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Adopting Biometric Technology examines the societal resistance hindering the broader usage of biometrics and provides practical solutions for overcoming those barriers while showing how its increased application would be overall advantageous.

Biometric Systems

Biometric Systems PDF Author: James L. Wayman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846280648
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 370

Book Description
Biometric Systems provides practitioners with an overview of the principles and methods needed to build reliable biometric systems. It covers three main topics: key biometric technologies, design and management issues, and the performance evaluation of biometric systems for personal verification/identification. The four most widely used technologies are focused on - speech, fingerprint, iris and face recognition. Key features include: in-depth coverage of the technical and practical obstacles which are often neglected by application developers and system integrators and which result in shortfalls between expected and actual performance; and protocols and benchmarks which will allow developers to compare performance and track system improvements.

The Current and Future Applications of Biometric Technologies

The Current and Future Applications of Biometric Technologies PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology (2011). Subcommittee on Research
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Biometric identification
Languages : en
Pages : 80

Book Description