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Biomedical Ambiguity

Biomedical Ambiguity PDF Author: Ian Whitmarsh
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801459648
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 237

Book Description
Steadily increasing numbers of Americans have been diagnosed with asthma in recent years, attracting the attention of biomedical researchers, including those searching for a genetic link to the disease. The high rate of asthma among African American children has made race significant to this search for genetic predisposition. One of the primary sites for this research today is Barbados. The Caribbean nation is considered optimal because of its predominantly black population. At the same time, the government of Barbados has promoted the country for such research in an attempt to take part in the biomedical future. In Biomedical Ambiguity, Ian Whitmarsh describes how he followed a team of genetic researchers to Barbados, where he did fieldwork among not only the researchers but also government officials, medical professionals, and the families being tested. Whitmarsh reveals how state officials and medical professionals make the international biomedical research part of state care, bundling together categories of disease populations, biological race, and asthma. He points to state and industry perceptions of mothers as medical caretakers in genetic research that proves to be inextricable from contested practices around nation, race, and family. The reader's attention is drawn to the ambiguity in these practices, as researchers turn the plurality of ethnic identities and illness meanings into a science of asthma and race at the same time that medical practitioners and families make the opaque science significant to patient experience. Whitmarsh shows that the contradictions introduced by this "misunderstanding" paradoxically enable the research to move forward.

Biomedical Ambiguity

Biomedical Ambiguity PDF Author: Ian Whitmarsh
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801459648
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 237

Book Description
Steadily increasing numbers of Americans have been diagnosed with asthma in recent years, attracting the attention of biomedical researchers, including those searching for a genetic link to the disease. The high rate of asthma among African American children has made race significant to this search for genetic predisposition. One of the primary sites for this research today is Barbados. The Caribbean nation is considered optimal because of its predominantly black population. At the same time, the government of Barbados has promoted the country for such research in an attempt to take part in the biomedical future. In Biomedical Ambiguity, Ian Whitmarsh describes how he followed a team of genetic researchers to Barbados, where he did fieldwork among not only the researchers but also government officials, medical professionals, and the families being tested. Whitmarsh reveals how state officials and medical professionals make the international biomedical research part of state care, bundling together categories of disease populations, biological race, and asthma. He points to state and industry perceptions of mothers as medical caretakers in genetic research that proves to be inextricable from contested practices around nation, race, and family. The reader's attention is drawn to the ambiguity in these practices, as researchers turn the plurality of ethnic identities and illness meanings into a science of asthma and race at the same time that medical practitioners and families make the opaque science significant to patient experience. Whitmarsh shows that the contradictions introduced by this "misunderstanding" paradoxically enable the research to move forward.

The Ethics of Ambiguity

The Ethics of Ambiguity PDF Author: Simone de Beauvoir
Publisher: Open Road Media
ISBN: 1504054210
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 98

Book Description
From the groundbreaking author of The Second Sex comes a radical argument for ethical responsibility and freedom. In this classic introduction to existentialist thought, French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir’s The Ethics of Ambiguity simultaneously pays homage to and grapples with her French contemporaries, philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, by arguing that the freedoms in existentialism carry with them certain ethical responsibilities. De Beauvoir outlines a series of “ways of being” (the adventurer, the passionate person, the lover, the artist, and the intellectual), each of which overcomes the former’s deficiencies, and therefore can live up to the responsibilities of freedom. Ultimately, de Beauvoir argues that in order to achieve true freedom, one must battle against the choices and activities of those who suppress it. The Ethics of Ambiguity is the book that launched Simone de Beauvoir’s feminist and existential philosophy. It remains a concise yet thorough examination of existence and what it means to be human.

Biological Knowledge Discovery Handbook

Biological Knowledge Discovery Handbook PDF Author: Mourad Elloumi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118617118
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 1192

Book Description
The first comprehensive overview of preprocessing, mining,and postprocessing of biological data Molecular biology is undergoing exponential growth in both thevolume and complexity of biological data—and knowledgediscovery offers the capacity to automate complex search and dataanalysis tasks. This book presents a vast overview of the mostrecent developments on techniques and approaches in the field ofbiological knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD)—providingin-depth fundamental and technical field information on the mostimportant topics encountered. Written by top experts, Biological Knowledge DiscoveryHandbook: Preprocessing, Mining, and Postprocessing of BiologicalData covers the three main phases of knowledge discovery (datapreprocessing, data processing—also known as datamining—and data postprocessing) and analyzes both verificationsystems and discovery systems. BIOLOGICAL DATA PREPROCESSING Part A: Biological Data Management Part B: Biological Data Modeling Part C: Biological Feature Extraction Part D Biological Feature Selection BIOLOGICAL DATA MINING Part E: Regression Analysis of Biological Data Part F Biological Data Clustering Part G: Biological Data Classification Part H: Association Rules Learning from Biological Data Part I: Text Mining and Application to Biological Data Part J: High-Performance Computing for Biological DataMining Combining sound theory with practical applications in molecularbiology, Biological Knowledge Discovery Handbook is idealfor courses in bioinformatics and biological KDD as well as forpractitioners and professional researchers in computer science,life science, and mathematics.

Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics

Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics PDF Author: Tjeerd M.H. Dijkstra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364216000X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 458

Book Description
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics, PRIB 2010, held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, in September 2010. The 38 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 46 submissions. The field of bioinformatics has two main objectives: the creation and maintenance of biological databases and the analysis of life sciences data in order to unravel the mysteries of biological function. Computer science methods such as pattern recognition, machine learning, and data mining have a great deal to offer the field of bioinformatics.

Natural Language Processing and Information Systems

Natural Language Processing and Information Systems PDF Author: Christina J Hopfe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642138802
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 325

Book Description
th The 15 International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2010) took place during June 23–25 in Cardiff (UK). Since the first edition in 1995, the NLDB conference has been aiming at bringing together resear- ers, people working in industry and potential users interested in various applications of natural language in the database and information system area. However, in order to reflect the growing importance of accessing information from a diverse collection of sources (Web, Databases, Sensors, Cloud) in an equally wide range of contexts (- cluding mobile and tethered), the theme of the 15th International Conference on - plications of Natural Language to Information Systems 2010 was "Communicating with Anything, Anywhere in Natural Language. " Natural languages and databases are core components in the development of inf- mation systems. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques may substantially enhance most phases of the information system lifecycle, starting with requirement analysis, specification and validation, and going up to conflict resolution, result pr- essing and presentation. Furthermore, natural language-based query languages and user interfaces facilitate the access to information for all and allow for new paradigms in the usage of computerized services. Hot topics such as information retrieval (IR), software engineering applications, hidden Markov models, natural language interfaces and semantic networks and graphs imply a complete fusion of databases, IR and NLP techniques.

Data and Text Processing for Health and Life Sciences

Data and Text Processing for Health and Life Sciences PDF Author: Francisco M. Couto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030138453
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 98

Book Description
This open access book is a step-by-step introduction on how shell scripting can help solve many of the data processing tasks that Health and Life specialists face everyday with minimal software dependencies. The examples presented in the book show how simple command line tools can be used and combined to retrieve data and text from web resources, to filter and mine literature, and to explore the semantics encoded in biomedical ontologies. To store data this book relies on open standard text file formats, such as TSV, CSV, XML, and OWL, that can be open by any text editor or spreadsheet application. The first two chapters, Introduction and Resources, provide a brief introduction to the shell scripting and describe popular data resources in Health and Life Sciences. The third chapter, Data Retrieval, starts by introducing a common data processing task that involves multiple data resources. Then, this chapter explains how to automate each step of that task by introducing the required commands line tools one by one. The fourth chapter, Text Processing, shows how to filter and analyze text by using simple string matching techniques and regular expressions. The last chapter, Semantic Processing, shows how XPath queries and shell scripting is able to process complex data, such as the graphs used to specify ontologies. Besides being almost immutable for more than four decades and being available in most of our personal computers, shell scripting is relatively easy to learn by Health and Life specialists as a sequence of independent commands. Comprehending them is like conducting a new laboratory protocol by testing and understanding its procedural steps and variables, and combining their intermediate results. Thus, this book is particularly relevant to Health and Life specialists or students that want to easily learn how to process data and text, and which in return may facilitate and inspire them to acquire deeper bioinformatics skills in the future.

Sweetness in the Blood

Sweetness in the Blood PDF Author: James Doucet-Battle
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 1452962316
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 250

Book Description
A bold new indictment of the racialization of science Decades of data cannot be ignored: African American adults are far more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than white adults. But has science gone so far in racializing diabetes as to undermine the search for solutions? In a rousing indictment of the idea that notions of biological race should drive scientific inquiry, Sweetness in the Blood provides an ethnographic picture of biotechnology’s framings of Type 2 diabetes risk and race and, importantly, offers a critical examination of the assumptions behind the recruitment of African American and African-descent populations for Type 2 diabetes research. James Doucet-Battle begins with a historical overview of how diabetes has been researched and framed racially over the past century, chronicling one company’s efforts to recruit African Americans to test their new diabetes risk-score algorithm with the aim of increasing the clinical and market value of the firm’s technology. He considers African American reticence about participation in biomedical research and examines race and health disparities in light of advances in genomic sequencing technology. Doucet-Battle concludes by emphasizing that genomic research into sub-Saharan ancestry in fact underlines the importance of analyzing gender before attempting to understand the notion of race. No disease reveals this more than Type 2 diabetes. Sweetness in the Blood challenges the notion that the best approach to understanding, managing, and curing Type 2 diabetes is through the lens of race. It also transforms how we think about sugar, filling a neglected gap between the sugar- and molasses-sweetened past of the enslaved African laborer and the high-fructose corn syrup- and corporate-fed body of the contemporary consumer-laborer.

The Palgrave Handbook of Biology and Society

The Palgrave Handbook of Biology and Society PDF Author: Maurizio Meloni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137528796
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 941

Book Description
This comprehensive handbook synthesizes the often-fractured relationship between the study of biology and the study of society. Bringing together a compelling array of interdisciplinary contributions, the authors demonstrate how nuanced attention to both the biological and social sciences opens up novel perspectives upon some of the most significant sociological, anthropological, philosophical and biological questions of our era. The six sections cover topics ranging from genomics and epigenetics, to neuroscience and psychology to social epidemiology and medicine. The authors collaboratively present state-of-the-art research and perspectives in some of the most intriguing areas of what can be called biosocial and biocultural approaches, demonstrating how quickly we are moving beyond the acrimonious debates that characterized the border between biology and society for most of the twentieth century. This landmark volume will be an extremely valuable resource for scholars and practitioners in all areas of the social and biological sciences. The chapter 'Ten Theses on the Subject of Biology and Politics: Conceptual, Methodological, and Biopolitical Considerations' is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com. Versions of the chapters 'The Transcendence of the Social', 'Scrutinizing the Epigenetics Revolution', 'Species of Biocapital, 2008, and Speciating Biocapital, 2017' and 'Experimental Entanglements: Social Science and Neuroscience Beyond Interdisciplinarity' are available open access via third parties. For further information please see license information in the chapters or on link.springer.com.

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic Biology PDF Author: Markus Schmidt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048126789
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 190

Book Description
Synthetic biology is becoming one of the most dynamic new fields of biology, with the potential to revolutionize the way we do biotechnology today. By applying the toolbox of engineering disciplines to biology, a whole set of potential applications become possible ranging very widely across scientific and engineering disciplines. Some of the potential benefits of synthetic biology, such as the development of low-cost drugs or the production of chemicals and energy by engineered bacteria are enormous. There are, however, also potential and perceived risks due to deliberate or accidental damage. Also, ethical issues of synthetic biology just start being explored, with hardly any ethicists specifically focusing on the area of synthetic biology. This book will be the first of its kind focusing particularly on the safety, security and ethical concerns and other relevant societal aspects of this new emerging field. The foreseen impact of this book will be to stimulate a debate on these societal issues at an early stage. Past experiences, especially in the field of GM-crops and stem cells, have shown the importance of an early societal debate. The community and informed stakeholders recognize this need, but up to now discussions are fragmentary. This book will be the first comprehensive overview on relevant societal issues of synthetic biology, setting the scene for further important discussions within the scientific community and with civil society.

Ambiguity Versus Uncertainty in Medical Self-diagnosis

Ambiguity Versus Uncertainty in Medical Self-diagnosis PDF Author: Delia Cioffi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 316

Book Description